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Studies on fish oil

Member Forum >> Coronary Disease & Cholesterol Protocol >> Studies on fish oil


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Posted: 6/26/2014 12:18:24 AM


  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Hypertriglyceridemia: New Findings and Formulations - Continuing Medical Education (CME):Princeton Media Associates, exp. 10/29/06 - "To lower TG levels, the dose of omega-3 therapy is ~4 g of EPA + DHA per day"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Recommendations for Therapeutics and Prevention - Medscape, exp. 10/19/06 -"Studies support low DHA as a risk factor for dementia. Low total n-3 fatty acids levels, EPA and DHA associate with greater risk of CVD, dietary intake and/or supplementation is supported as a secondary or tertiary prevention measure. Omega-3 fatty acids also help to prevent type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, two common precursors to CVD. There is some support for schizophrenia, depressive or aggressive disorders; however, large multi-center clinical trials have yet to be conducted. The anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 fatty acids are helpful in decreasing symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and may possibly increase remission length in Crohn's patients"
  • Omega 3: Implications in human health and disease - PowerPak (CME course), exp. 8/1/03 - "On average, our society consumes around 35% of its caloric intake from fat, mainly as vegetable oil. The omega 6 LA comprises 7% to 9% of our daily caloric intake, while the omega 3 LNA makes up about 0.7% of energy. It is therefore estimated that the dietary ratio of LA to LNA ranges from 10 to 20:1, at which level the metabolism of LNA is strongly suppressed.2,25 Again, this is far more than the recommended ratio of 2.3:1" - See Mega Twin EPA at

General Information:

  • An Evidence-Based Medicine Approach to the Appropriate Selection of Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty -, 6/1/07 - "Fish oils EPA and DHA appear to result in different physiologic effects than their precursor, the plant-derived ALA.12-14 Biosynthesis of EPA or DHA from ALA is limited. Although dietary consumption of ALA alone will prevent EFA deficiency, emerging scientific evidence indicates that for optimum health or body function, the fish oils EPA and DHA should also be ingested regularly, either from dietary or supplement sources. Use of ALA supplementation alone, even with high dose or long-term consumption, does not result in lowered triglyceride concentrations seen with EPA or DHA, nor does it demonstrate similar in vitro susceptibility to oxidation of LDL cholesterol"
  • The Heart-Healthy Benifits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids - John Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6/05 - "Fish-oil supplements appear to have much lower levels of toxins than fish. In a study of 5 over the-counter fish-oil preparations, levels of PCBs and organochlorines were below the detectable limit in all of the supplements ... Because consumption of this amount of fish in secondary prevention is difficult for most individuals, dietary supplementation is generally needed and should be recommended. The dose in secondary prevention should be at least 875 mg of EPA + DHA per day. This dose can generally be obtained by taking 2 capsules of concentrated fish oils (at least 50% EPA + DHA) per day. For example, such a preparation would contain 500 mg of EPA + DHA per each 1000-mg fish-oil capsule"
  • Omega 3: Implications in Human Health and Disease - - "It should be noted, however, that flaxseed or flaxseed oil does not contain EPA or DHA. Thus flaxseed and fish oil are not interchangeable sources of omega 3 fatty acids per se" - I believe the same holds true for canola oil - Ben
  • Omega 3: Implications in Human Health and Disease -"The omega 6 LA comprises 7% to 9% of our daily caloric intake, while the omega 3 LNA makes up about 0.7% of energy. It is therefore estimated that the dietary ratio of LA to LNA ranges from 10 to 20:1, at which level the metabolism of LNA is strongly suppressed. Again, this is far more than the recommended ratio of 2.3:1 ... From an evolutionary perspective, a significant change in the diet has occurred in a very short time. The diet of our ancestors in the Paleolithic period (400,000 to 45,000 years ago) was lower in fat and balanced in omega 6 and omega 3—a ratio of 1:1, or 10- to 20-fold lower than today's standard."

News & Research:

  • Omega-3 inhibits blood vessel growth in age-related macular degeneration - Science Daily, 6/17/14 - "Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV), or blood vessel growth, is the primary cause of blindness in elderly individuals of industrialized countries ... the omega (ω)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), DHA and EPA, and their specific bioactive products derived from the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway, can influence choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and vascular leakage by modulating micro-environmental immune cell recruitment to the site of these lesions ... Given the prevalence of neovascular eye disease, the potential impact of this study is highly significant. We have identified unique endogenous lipid biometabolites that are able to inhibit pathologic retinal angiogenesis, a major driver of vision loss worldwide"- See fish oil supplements at
  • Diet Rich in Polyphenols Improves Glucose Metabolism - Medscape, 6/4/14 - "they randomized 45 patients to one of four diets: a standard control diet that was low in omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, a diet rich in polyphenols, and a diet that included omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols. All patients were overweight or obese, with a body-mass index > 30 ... Although individuals lost more weight on the eight-week omega-3-fatty-acid–enriched diet, there were significantly greater improvements in plasma glucose and plasma insulin levels with the polyphenol-enriched diet during an oral glucose tolerance test. The improvement in glucose metabolism was observed only in those who consumed the polyphenol-enriched diet ... this particular mechanism of action with polyphenols is similar to drugs used in the treatment of diabetes. However, rather than wait until the patient is diagnosed with the metabolic disease, a diet rich in polyphenols could be used as a preventive strategy"
  • Diet can predict cognitive decline, researchers say - Science Daily, 4/27/14 -"What is the takeaway from this research? There is growing evidence that very long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for maintaining cognitive health, and many Americans do not have an adequate intake of these nutrients" - See fish oil supplements at
  • Fatty-Fish Consumption Alters HDL-Particle Profile - Medscape, 3/7/14 - "Although total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol levels did not change, for those who consumed this healthy diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, the intake of fish was strongly correlated with an increased concentration of large HDL particles, including an increase in the average diameter of HDL particles and an increase in the concentrations of large HDL lipid components ... The changes that we saw in large HDL particles could be related to those parameters that are functionally related to reverse cholesterol transport ... Thus, our findings could partly explain the known protective effects of fish consumption against atherosclerosis"
  • Fish Oil Might Guard Against Loss of Brain Cells - WebMD, 1/22/14 -"The more you consume the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils, the less likely you are to lose as many precious brain cells as you age ... the researchers tested levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the red blood cells of more than 1,000 older women. Eight years later, the women had MRI scans that measured their brain volumes. At the time of the scans, the women were an average of 78 years old ... Participants whose omega-3 levels were twice as high had a 0.7 percent higher brain volume ... The results suggest that the effect on brain volume is the equivalent of delaying the normal loss of brain cells that comes with aging by one to two years" - [Medscape] - See fish oil supplements at
  • Fish derived serum omega-3 fatty acids help reduce risk of type 2 diabetes - Science Daily, 1/14/14 - "Ongoing at the University of Eastern Finland, the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) determined the serum omega-3 fatty acid concentrations of 2,212 men between 42 and 60 years of age at the onset of the study, in 1984-1989 ... follow-up of 19.3 years ... The risk of men in the highest serum omega-3 fatty acid concentration quarter to develop type 2 diabetes was 33% lower than the risk of men in the lowest quarter" - See fish oil supplements at
  • Omega-3 Dietary Supplements Pass Blood-Brain Barrier - Science Daily, 12/4/13 -"omega-3 fatty acids in dietary supplements can cross the blood brain barrier in people with Alzheimer's disease ... The findings are presented in the Journal of Internal Medicine, and strengthen the evidence that omega-3 may benefit certain forms of this seriously debilitating disease ... Thirty-three patients participated in the study, 18 of whom received a daily omega-3 supplement and 15 a placebo for six months. The results show that the first group had higher levels of both DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, another omega-3 fatty acid) in their cerebrospinal fluid (which surrounds the CNS) and blood. No such change was seen in the placebo group ... Moreover, they also found that levels of DHA correlated directly with the degree of change in Alzheimer's disease and inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid"
  • Low-fat fish oil changes cancer tissue in prostate cancer, study shows - Science Daily, 11/18/13 - "Men with prostate cancer who ate a low-fat diet and took fish oil supplements had lower levels of pro-inflammatory substances in their blood and a lower cell cycle progression score, a measure used to predict cancer recurrence ... lowering the cell cycle progression (CCP) score may help prevent prostate cancers from becoming more aggressive ... The Western diet consisted of 40 percent of calories from fat, generally equivalent to what many Americans consume today .... The low-fat diet consisted of 15 percent of calories from fat. Additionally, the men on this diet took five grams of fish oil per day in five capsules, three with breakfast and two with dinner, to provide omega-3 fatty acids"
  • High serum fatty acid protects against brain abnormalities - Science Daily, 10/17/13 - "3,660 people aged 65 and older underwent brain scans to detect so called silent brain infarcts, or small lesions in the brain that can cause loss of thinking skills, dementia and stroke. Scans were performed again five years later on 2,313 of the participants ... silent brain infarcts, which are only detected by brain scans, are found in about 20% of otherwise healthy elderly people ... those who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood had about 40% lower risk of having small brain infarcts compared to those with low content of these fatty acids in blood ... people who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood also had fewer changes in the white matter in their brains"
  • Diet during pregnancy and early life may affect children's behavior and intelligence - Science Daily, 9/13/13 - "Blood samples were taken from 493 schoolchildren, aged between seven and nine years, from 74 mainstream schools in Oxfordshire. All of the children were thought to have below-average reading skills ... Analyses of their blood samples showed that, on average, just under two per cent of the children's total blood fatty acids were Omega-3 DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) and 0.5 per cent were Omega-3 EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid), with a total of 2.45 per cent for these long-chain Omega-3 combined. This is below the minimum of 4 per cent recommended by leading scientists to maintain cardiovascular health in adults, with 8-12 per cent regarded as optimal for a healthy heart ... levels of Omega-3 fatty acids in the blood significantly predicted a child's behaviour and ability to learn. Higher levels of Omega-3 in the blood, and DHA in particular, were associated with better reading and memory, as well as with fewer behaviour problems as rated by parents and teachers"
  • Fatty acids could aid cancer prevention and treatment - Science Daily, 8/1/13 -"new research from scientists at Queen Mary, University of London ... In vitro tests showed omega-3 fatty acids induced cell death in malignant and pre-malignant cells at doses which did not affect normal cells, suggesting they have the potential to be used in both the treatment and prevention of certain skin and oral cancers"
  • Diets lacking omega-3s lead to anxiety, hyperactivity in teens: Generational omega-3 deficiencies have worsening effects over time - Science Daily, 7/29/13 -"in a rodent model second-generation deficiencies of omega-3s caused elevated states of anxiety and hyperactivity in adolescents and affected the teens' memory and cognition ... this dietary deficiency can compromise the behavioral health of adolescents, not only because their diet is deficient but because their parents' diet was deficient as well. This is of particular concern because adolescence is a very vulnerable time for developing psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and addiction."Diets lacking omega-3 fatty acids -- found in foods like wild fish, eggs, and grass-fed livestock -- can have worsened effects over consecutive generations, especially affecting teens"
  • Fish Oil's Link to Prostate Cancer Unproven - Medscape, 7/26/13 - "The bottom line is that we cannot determine from this study design whether the intake of omega-3 fatty acids will cause prostate cancer and raise a man's risk for high-grade disease. The media has taken this and sensationalized the risk associated with omega-3 fatty acid intake"
  • Low Omega-3 in Kids Linked to Behavior, Cognitive Deficits - Medscape, 7/23/13 -"This study formed the screening stage of a previously published randomized controlled intervention study that included 362 healthy children aged 7 to 9 years from primary schools in Oxfordshire, a large county in the UK, who had low reading scores. The DOLAB study reported that supplementation with 600 mg DHA daily for 16 weeks improved reading and behavior in children with the lowest 20% of reading scores ... The study showed that reading scores were significantly and positively associated with the omega-3 fatty acids DHA (P < .003), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; P < .04), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; P < .005), and the omega-3 index (EPA+DHA; P < .04). Total omega-6 fatty acids also showed a positive correlation with reading ... Results were similar for working memory. Scores for Recall of Digits Forward were significantly and positively associated with DHA (P < .003), DPA (P < .04), EPA (P < .005), the omega-3 index (P < .001), and total omega-3 (P < .004)"
  • How a SELECTed Bad Study Became Big News - Dr. Michael Murray, 7/12/13 -"This study is not consistent with other studies (discussed below) ... There is no evidence that anybody in this study took fish oil supplements or even ate fish ... In usual circumstances, plasma levels of EPA and DHA reflect very recent intake and are considered a poor biomarker of long-term omega-3 intake ... Patients with prostate cancer may have only recently increased their fish and/or fish oil consumption ... Fish and fish oil ingestion produces a big rise in plasma omega-3 levels in about 4.5 hours and washes out around 48 hours ... The data may reflect cancer activity rather than a causative association. Without dietary history or documentation of fish oil use there is no way of knowing"
  • Experts slam omega-3 link to prostate cancer as 'scaremongering' - Nutra USA, 7/12/13 - "if the findings of the new study were true, "then prostate cancer would be rampant in any country with high seafood consumption (Scandinavia, Japan etc) and conversely, low level consumption should be protective"
  • Specific Fish Oils May Protect Against Breast Cancer - Medscape, 6/27/13 - "