The case against vitamin D2

Why would vitamin D be prescribed when vitamin D3 is available over-the-counter?

Let's review the known differences between vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol):

--D3 is the human form; D2 is the non-human form found in plants.

--Dose for dose, D3 is more effective at raising blood levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D than D2. It requires roughly twice to 250% of the dose of D2 to match that of D3 (Trang H et al 1998).

--D2 blood levels don't yield long-term sustained levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D as does D3. When examined as a 28-day area under the curve (AUC--a superior measure of biologic exposure), D3 yields better than a 300% increased potency compared to D2. This means that it requires around 50,000 units D2 to match the effects of 15,000 units D3 (Armas LA et al 2004).

--D2 has lower binding affinity for vitamin D-binding protein, compared to D3

--Mitochondrial vitamin D 25-hydroxylase converts D3 to the 25-hydroxylated form five times more rapidly than D2.

--As we age, the ability to metabolize D2 is dramatically reduced, while D3 is not subject to this phenomenon (Harris SS et al 2002).

From Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP 2004

While there are dissenters on this view, the bulk of evidence suggests that D2 is an inferior form of D3.

Then why is D2 prescribed by many doctors when the natural, human, and superior D3 is available over-the-counter?

You already know the answer: Much of your doctor's education did not come from scientific lectures nor from reading scientific studies. It came from the pretty drug representative in the waiting room who hands the doctor reprints of the "studies" performed by the drug industry to support the use of their drugs. There is no such nutritional supplement representative in the waiting room. This preference for the "drug" D2 over the supplement D3 also stems from the inherent preference of physicians for things they can control, whether or not there is proof of superiority.

In my view, there is absolutely no reason to take vitamin D2 over D3 except to enrich the drug industry.

Comments (40) -

  • Barkeater

    8/11/2009 1:08:02 PM |

    I recently had a discussion with a relative who got a prescription for Vitamin D.  (This after I bought her a Vitamin D test from Grassroots showing a level of 19.)  I told her the prescription was a bad idea as it was surely Vitamin D2.  She looked into it and came back and told me, no, it was D3.  I have not seen it, but I am asking now - is it really true that prescriptions are invariably D2?  She claimed it was 50k IU of D3, once a week.

    Separately, I see it stated here and there that the Vitamin D added to milk is D2.  Most milk labels I see show it as D3.

  • Anne

    8/11/2009 2:41:22 PM |

    A bit of information that the drug reps don't tell the physician is people need to be on a maintenance dose. I have seen so many people who were prescribed D2 for a few months. Once the vitamin D level rose to over 30, they were told they could discontinue taking the D2.

    One person told me that she had started and stopped D2 three times. She said her doctor could not figure out why her vitamin D level keeps dropping when the D is stopped. At least she was retested. The other people who were told to stop taking D2, were never retested once their D hit "normal".  

    I have a friend who told her doctor she would get her vitamin D as D3 OTC. She said he expressed surprise that it could be bought without a prescription.

  • Richard A.

    8/11/2009 5:06:19 PM |

    The study you site appears to use the dry form of vitamin D3.

  • Tony Kenck

    8/11/2009 5:06:41 PM |

    So is D2 a prescription medicine?

  • TedHutchinson

    8/11/2009 5:13:14 PM |

    Here is an abstract providing an example of the total lack of effect of D2 in a patient.
    The lack of vitamin D toxicity with megadose of daily ergocalciferol (D2) therapy:
    The maximum daily dose of vitamin D currently recommended is 2000 IU. Ergocalciferol (D2) 50,000 IU orally weekly for 8-12 weeks is often used to treat vitamin D deficient patients (25(OH) vitamin D <20 ng/mL).
    The lack of vitamin D toxicity after massive doses of ergocalciferol has yet to be reported in the literature.
    We report a case of a 56-year-old woman who received supratherapeutic doses of ergocalciferol (150,000 IU orally daily) for 28 years without toxicity. We discuss the possible mechanisms which may account for a lack of toxicity despite intake of massive daily doses of ergocalciferol in this patient.

    The sad aspect to this story is that as Vitamin D2 at that ridiculously high intake didn't do her harm, it's also probable that her body did not recognise it at all, so it probably didn't do her any good either. As there have been other accounts of people taking large (but not as huge as this case) amounts of D2 and it not having any noticeable effect on Vitamin d deficiency symptoms it seems just pointless to risk using it, when there is a cheaper, more reliable, alternative readily available.

  • billye

    8/11/2009 8:23:28 PM |

    I think it is up to the patient who is tuned in to this fine blog and several other like minded blogs who preach as you do, such  as "" to bring your information to their primary doctors.  My primary doctor still takes a Staten drug even though he knows and marvels at the health gains that I have achieved through supplementation with high dose vitamin D3 and high dose omega 3fish oil, along with a cave man like diet.  I asked him why he take a Staten drug when they work by increasing his vitamin D level? I said just take vitamin D3 instead of the Staten drug.  His answer was that he only takes a little Staten drug.  When he found my wife to be vitamin D deficient, he in fact ordered a script for vitamin D2.  I insisted that she take OTC vitamin D3 and after a tussle he gave in.  

    I am sorry to say that only we the patients can change the system.  I don't blame the very over worked primary care physicians who have no time to read the necessary science.  We the patients have to bring the relevant data to them.  After all it's our health that is being impacted.

  • Dr. William Davis

    8/11/2009 10:53:05 PM |


    There is indeed a prescription D3.

    Now, why a prescription form is necessary is beyond me. I suppose we could make prescription vitamin C, too, and charge $120 per month.

  • Dr. William Davis

    8/11/2009 10:53:51 PM |

    Hi, Anne-

    Yes, I also see this incredible blunder occuring around me.

    I'm not sure what they're thinking.

  • Anonymous

    8/12/2009 12:28:05 AM |

    Vitamin D3 1000 IU 240 tablets per bottle x 2 bottles purchased from Costco is dirt cheap.  $5.20 Cdn.  Very cheap $ U.S. dollars.

    I take 3,000 to 5,000 IU daily and associate it with stopping hot flashes.

    Inadvertently 'experiments' by running out of D3 for several weeks at a time resulted in really terrific hot flashes. Nothing is quite as unpleasant as having a hot flash as soon as I wake up, for example. Clearly I have not done double blind studies.  I am (sort of) menopausal.  No periods from September 2008 to June 2009.  Now, back. Frown

    No vitamin D3 intake during summer of 2008:  terrible terrible hot flahses. Then started taking D3 3000 IU in August 2008. Ran out of D3 sometime in Januray.  Hot flashes started up sometime later.  However, no hot flashes since end of March 2009.  No hot flashes from September to January.  Stopped taking D3 because too lazy to go to Costco to buy more.  Then started taking D3 and then stopped with the hot flashes and have not had another one in months even though obviously the hormones are fluctuating.

    I used to think that HRT would stop hot flashes.  HRT does nothing for the hot flashes.  Vitamin D3 appears to work much more effectively.  

    Dr. G. Kadar
    Toronto, Canada

  • Dr. William Davis

    8/12/2009 1:58:52 AM |

    Dr. Kadar--

    Fascinating observation!

    Any other ladies who've made similar observations? Or perhaps taken vitamin D yet continued to experience hot flashes?

  • Anne

    8/12/2009 2:31:35 AM |

    Tony ~ D2 can be bought as an OTC too.

    Dr. Kader ~ I have a co-worker who says her hot flashes disappear when she takes vitamin D.

  • Peter

    8/12/2009 9:58:46 AM |

    I wonder if there is any research on your view that the tablets don't work, only the gelcaps, for raising vitamin D levles.  It seems like it would be very easy to show whether or not this is true, and very important since lots of people take the tablets.

  • Dr. William Davis

    8/12/2009 12:15:34 PM |

    Hi, Peter-

    To my knowledge, there is no research on this topic. However, having tested vitamin D blood levels thousands of times, I can say with confidence that the tablets are inconsistently absorbed--sometimes they work, often they don't, or they increase blood levels less effectively. Levels also vary widely, due to inconsistent absorption.

    Gelcaps--i.e.,oil-based--are absorbed consistently.

  • Anonymous

    8/12/2009 1:59:08 PM |

    What are some good brands of OTC D3?  I see the Costco mentioned, but has it been independently tested?  I know the Costco brand fish oil is supposedly decent, so it would make since that the D3 is as well.

    I usually order online ( and I like the NSI brands.  Are they good?

  • billye

    8/12/2009 4:24:24 PM |

    Dr. Kadar

    Thanks for sharing about your success with vitamin D3 bringing relief for your hot flashes.  I have a daughter who was suffering with hot flashes and refused to take the dangerous medically recommended hormones to alleviate the problem.  Instead she started to take black cohosh. when I pulled a negative study from Pub Med she stopped. She continued to suffer and not in silence.  In the meantime, understanding the health benefits, I convinced her to start taking 6000 IU of vitamin D3 soft gels.  It never dawned on me that this could be so positive relative to hot flashes.  This morning I asked her how come I don't hear any hot flash complaints and she answered that she hasn't had an episode in a very very long time.  It seems likely that we now can put a face on the reason why.  Yet another use for the miracle health supporting hormone vitamin D3.  

    It truly is a fascinating observation,as Dr. Davis remarked.  Thanks for solving this mystery.

  • Nameless

    8/12/2009 5:19:25 PM |

    It's just a guess, but the inconsistent absorption of dry  D3 sounds like it's due to fats (or lack of fats) consumed when dosing. So if patients take it with fish oil, or right after a fatty meal, it may work.

    But I see no reason to stay on dry anyway as gels are very cheap. There are also liquid drops (usually with a fat carrier) for those who dislike pills.

    I'm just waiting for a company to put out a D3/K2 gel next. They seem like logical partners.

  • Diana

    8/12/2009 6:54:38 PM |

    I have a blogsite where I am tracking successes regarding the usage of vitamin D.  Will you tell your success story?  I am an advocate and educator for using Vitamin D3.  I personally take 6000-8000 to keep my levels of D3 at the appropriate level.  

    I will never stop!  It manages the SAD disorder that I had without knowing for over 25 years.  It has changed my life.  My sense of wellbeing has increased to 100%.  Before, it was always a struggle to shake off the feeling that something always felt off, or wrong. It never felt like depression, and my outlook has always been upbeat.  But I still carried around, what I only know how to discribe as almost a sadness, or a feeling that something was wrong but I couldn't put my finger on it.  After taking the Vitamin D3, it just disappeared.  So, now I am an advocate, and believe firmly that this information must be disemminated out into the communities.  

    If you have a story to tell I would appreciate it if you would add it to my blog site:


  • Diana

    8/12/2009 7:02:19 PM |

    There are also D3 available in liquid form.  It is great for those who can't swallow pills.  I believe it is through Biotics Research.  It is 2000U a drop.  I put 3 to 4 on my finger, and it is done. Nice to have the option and works better for children.

  • Anonymous

    8/12/2009 10:22:05 PM |

    I recently discovered while shopping for my D3 that there is also a D3 version made from sheep lanolin.  Is this as effective as the D3 from fish oil?  Is there any reason why one would be preferred over the other?  I go for the fish oil source because I just don't know anything about the other.

    I've been taking anywhere from 4,000 iu to 10,000 iu per day since February 2009 when my test revealed a level of 27 ng/dl. Last month I asked my dr for another test and he said they normally don't test again, which I just don't understand!(kaiser insurance). I still have my hot flashes but now that I think about it they are few and far between and less intense.

  • Anonymous

    8/12/2009 10:41:32 PM |

    Probably taking vitamin D3 tablets with a meal containing fat helps with absorption.

    I've got patients using the drops.  They butter their toast and add the relevent number of drops of D3 1000 IU per drop to their buttered toast. (I recommend 100% rye sourdough bread for those patients who must eat their bread.)

    I am now asking female patients experiencing intrusive hot flashes to take vitamin D3.  I'll wait for feedback from them.  Also for perimenopausal mood fluctuations.

    Looked at another way:  D3 is a hormone replacement therapy.  

    I do also tell patients about vitamin K2 and how it is also necessary for bone metabolism.  If they take therapeutic doses of
    vitamin D3, then they also must eat eggs (and cheese, liver, etc.)  But minimally, they must eat egg yolks.  In Canada, K2 is not available in any serious way as a supplement.  

    Dr. G. Kadar
    Toronto, Canada

  • Sue

    8/13/2009 2:35:08 PM |

    I would love to take my D3 in gelcap form, but have thus far been unable to find any here in Canada.  I sometimes take the liquid, but get hung up on what constitutes 'a drop,'  so usually settle for tablets along with fish or krill oil.  Anyone know of a Canadian source for gelcaps?

  • Neonomide

    8/13/2009 10:22:50 PM |

    Dr. William Davis said...

    "I can say with confidence that the tablets are inconsistently absorbed--sometimes they work, often they don't, or they increase blood levels less effectively. Levels also vary widely, due to inconsistent absorption.

    Gelcaps--i.e.,oil-based--are absorbed consistently."

    I cannot say anything about hot flashes since I'm a man (but can and will tell these interesting observations to PMP women I know), yet I have something to say about tablet versus powder versus gelcaps issue that may be of interest.

    I have moderate level Crohn's disease and got great help from D3 supplements for over 7 months now. I started with gelcaps (dosage 25-75 µg/d), then abruptly moved into powder form (Vit D Max, dosage 125 µg/d) and observed GREAT improvement in a couple of weeks. Even my BP dropped so much - from 145/95 to 115/75 and I even got dizzy during daytime. (I also took some melatonin to be fair).

    Then - after about 4 months - I changed back to gelcap form and kept the dosage and experienced somewhat more symptoms - if only for a while.

    Is it possible that powder form may work more quickly, or did my powder D3 contain more D3 than mentioned? I honestly don't know.

    I wrote for Dr B G about my Crohn improvement a while ago but she seems to be on holiday as we're speaking? Smile

    - Neo

  • Anonymous

    8/13/2009 11:18:11 PM |

    I buy small easy to dissolve capsules of D3 (dry powder, not oil) made by Bio-Tech from Dr. Eades' Protein Power site (no affliation other than as a reader).  The cost for the dose is very, very good ($8 for 100 capsules) and the bottles are small.  I was able to buy 11 bottles for the same shipping price as 1 bottle, so I stocked up and shared with family members (my experience is that middle aged adults need at least 5000iu per day year round to keep 25 (OH)D levels above 50 ng/mL).  I test at least twice a year, so I know that the D3 is absorbing.  

    I also usually take the D3 around the same time I am consuming some fat, which probably helps with absorption.  Other family members take Carlson's oil capsules with good results.  We avoid hard tablets.

    Bio-tech also makes a non-prescription D3 in a 50,000iU dose, 12 capsules for about $18 (plus shipping), which is a very competitive price compared to high dose Rx D2.

  • rendev

    8/14/2009 5:07:29 AM |

    Really a nice blog!
    Needs stuff to to!

  • TedHutchinson

    8/15/2009 6:29:52 PM |

    Readers who are using Vitamin D3 for cancer prevention may be interested in this new paper from Vieth
    How to Optimize Vitamin D Supplementation
    to Prevent Cancer, Based on Cellular
    Adaptation and Hydroxylase Enzymology

    The hypothesis seeks to answer some of the Dilemmas that challenge the vitamin D/Cancer hypothesis regarding prostate/pancreatic cancers.
    1)How can the vitamin D hypothesis explain the U-shaped risk curve for prostate cancer when the data suggest that the average 25(OH)D
    concentrations in countries with relatively high rates of prostate cancer are apparently the optimal concentrations for preventing prostate
    2 What plausible mechanism, other than vitamin D, could account for the association between greater lifetime sun exposure and diminished risk of prostate cancer ?
    3 How can latitude and environmental ultraviolet light be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer, yet not be a significant contributor to the lower average 25(OH)D concentrations theorized to be the key component of the mechanism that relates latitude to cancer risk?
    4 Why is summer season of diagnosis, or a higher serum 25(OH)D associated with better prognosis of prostate cancer?
    5 If vitamin D is adverse for prostate cancer, then why is the rate of rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) slower in summer  than in other seasons and why would vitamin D supplementation slow the rate of rise in PSA ?
    6 Why, in regions of the United States where environmental UVB is low, is there a positive association between pancreatic cancer versus serum 25(OH)D, while at the same time, in regions where UVB is high (presumably providing even higher serum 25(OH)D levels), is there no relationship with 25(OH)D ?
    7 If 25(OH)D is antiproliferative in cell cultures of prostate cells in vitro  and pancreatic cells, then why would it contribute to the development of cancer in vivo?

    Vieth suggests that as circulating 25(OH)D levels rise and fall, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D  concentrations  need to be adjusted and the balance between 25(OH)D-1-hydroxylase [CYP27B1](tumor surpressing) and the catabolic enzyme, 1,25(OH)2D-24-hydroxylase [CYP24](oncogene) may for a while become disrupted.

    Any time there is a delay in cellular adaptation, or lag time in the fine tuning of  1,25(OH)2D  in response to fluctuating 25(OH)d concentrations there is the potential for too little of the tumor suppressor enzyme and too much of the oncogene CYP24.

    Regular daily supplementation with D3 keeps levels high.
    Regular 25(OH)D testing will enable you to see your levels are remaining steady.
    It may be  sensible for people living further North to have a lower summer intake and higher winter amount in order to reduce the amplitude between summer highs and winter low 25(OH)D levels.

    Those who go for Winter sunshine breaks may want to think about increasing D3 intakes before they fly off, reducing supplement intake while under the tropical sunshine and resuming supplementing immediately on returning home to prevent sudden changes in status and limit the extent of gains/losses.

    25(OH)D levels need to be both high and stable.

    The graph Dr Davis shows how D2 levels dropped steeply (indeed levels at the end of the month were  lower than before supplementing started) so the fact that D2 increases the rate at which 25(OH)D depletes making the fluctuation in level more acute, is a further reason to avoid it.

  • Sabio Lantz

    8/16/2009 11:33:35 AM |

    Dr. Davis,
    I just got my labs back after 7 months on low-carb, high-fat diet.  Chol was 337 (my labs are here).
    I was wondering if you or readers could point me to 5 or 6 links that would help educate me on this issue so I can see if I need to make any changes in the next 7 months.  Thank you for your time.

  • epistemology

    10/27/2009 1:43:39 AM |

    Why do doctors prescribe Vitamin D2?
    They don't very often. Calcitriol (most common brand, Rocaltrol) is the most often prescribed Vitamin D around here (near Philadelphia).

    Why do we need a prescription Vitamin D when OTC Vitamin D is just as good?
    Two reasons:
    1. Without a prescription, patients take medicine less reliably,
    2. More importantly, many of my patients are poor, and OTC meds are not paid for, but prescriptions are.

  • Anonymous

    10/29/2009 11:35:25 PM |

    I take D2 (and get as much midday sun as is safe) because of the horrible way the sheep are treated.

  • Jim

    12/2/2009 5:38:41 AM |

    I know a nurse practitioner who practices in Phoenix, Arizona. She has done hundreds of blood draws for nutrient levels and has noted that some 99% of people were vitamin D deficient.

    She went on to explain that a lot of these people were construction workers and did not even wear sunscreen. Again, this is in Phoenix where the sun shines intensely nearly every single day of the year. If those people are not getting enough D, I think it's pretty safe to say that you are at least at risk.

  • Anonymous

    12/7/2009 4:38:54 PM |

    D2 comes from plant sources. D3 comes from animal sources, primarily animal skins. If you are vegetarian you would not want to take D3.

    The primary reason the prescription form is D2 is because D2 is much safer. Too much vitamin D is worse than too little. The standard prescription dose is very high, 50,000 units. High doses like that of D3 would be extremely dangerous. Your body is much better able to regulate it's absorbtion of D2.

    I would never take D3. It might take a bit higher dose of D2  to achieve the same result (studies do not agree on this) but I am never going to poison myself. I expect sereous negative health consequences in the future as a result of the marketing of D3. D3 is pretty much all you can find over the counter these days. I assume that it is more about promoting animal agriculture than human health.

  • Dr. J.

    12/16/2009 8:24:54 PM |

    It is true that the pharmaceutical industry has at times had undue sway over the medical profession.  To say that physicians are educated by "pretty representatives" is insulting and undermines the credibility of the author.  I agree that vitamin D3 is more "natural" and technically more potent.  The reason why vitamin D2 is more often prescribed is at least three-fold.
    1. Vitamin D2 is available in a prescription strength that allows for a more rapid repletion of vitamin D levels.  (It is hard to find a prescription vitamin D3)  In other words, it would take longer to replete vitamin D with over-the-counter doses of vitamin D3.  So why not just take a bunch of D3 capsules?  The dosing schedule for repletion of vitamin D with D3 is not as well worked out as it is with vitamin D2.  As soon as someone does a large scale study using vitamin D3, we will all be willing to switch.  Doctors are hesitant to make up regimens where effective ones already exist (re: risk of patient harm/legal liabilities)  
    2. Vitamin D2 has been prescribed for decades. We as physicians are more familiar with its effect on patients.  
    3.  Finally, vitamin D3 used to be more expensive--another reason D2 was preferred over D3.  Doctors, like everyone else, are often resistant to change.
    One thing is certain.  The author's assertion that physicians are not guided by science is false.  What we need is large scale clinical trial with vitamin D3.  The problem here is funding.  Who will pay for it?  Until then, the most we can say is that vitamin D3 is more "natural" and more potent.  Vitamin D2 however is effective and has not been shown to be injurious.

  • Dr. William Davis

    12/17/2009 12:22:06 AM |

    Dr. J--

    Allow me to insult you again: It has been my experience that many of our colleagues are miserably susceptible to the smile of a pretty representative. Perhaps you are not, but I see it all the time.

    I'm afraid that I believe you are way off base on the D2. I recommend that you read the existing literature. I believe that there's only one conclusion: D2 is markedly inferior. While better than nothing, why would anyone take a non-human form over a human form?

    Having replaced vitamin D in approximately 2000 patients using D3, I can tell you it is safe and reliable. In the handful of patients taking D2, I've seen everything from modest increases in blood level so 25-hydroxy vitamin D to no increase at all.

  • Deana

    3/20/2010 4:14:53 PM |

    Twice I have been on prescription strength Vit d2(50,000 units first for 8 weeks since my level was 30  and then rose to 66 with RxI took good quality Vit D3 in between 2000 units daily faithfully,eat a good diet (also take ERT age 65) and after serveral months^ my level again fell to 33 now have beenplaced on Vit D2 for 12 weeks, blood level 64 and will repeat test in 6 months.I am now taking 4000 units of D3. I DO NOT seem to be absorbing Vit D3 and wonder why or if I need even more daily

  • Gypsy Boheme

    7/14/2010 1:09:54 AM |

    Why wouldn't you just obtain your Vit D through food sources? sardines, salmon, tuna, liver, egg yolk, cod liver oil, fatty fish, dairy

  • Mary

    10/16/2010 1:27:55 AM |

    I HAVE to say something.  There are some valid health related reasons why some people/children have to take D2.  My daughter has to take D2 (her levels are at 33) so her DAN doc wants her D supplemented.  She also has some gastritis/EE he is hoping to heal in her tummy w it.  He wishes and we all wish she could take D3--I know its way better than D2.  BUT--she can't take D3--she is allergic to both fish and lanolin . . . so . . . therefore she has to take D2 right?  No other D3 option out there for her right--please answer if there is another option for her.  She is allergic to all the natural foods with D3 as well--egg etc.  D2 is all thats left.  I PRAY its helping her a little. We use a local company in WI called Cty Line Pharmaceuticals--the D2 is liquid, its D2 dissolved in propylene gycol with NOTHING else added.  Its a bit spicy but my daughter "Gags" it down as she  surely be allergic to anything added to flavor it.

  • buy jeans

    11/3/2010 3:44:48 PM |

    There is no such nutritional supplement representative in the waiting room. This preference for the "drug" D2 over the supplement D3 also stems from the inherent preference of physicians for things they can control, whether or not there is proof of superiority.

  • Anonymous

    12/13/2010 4:25:32 PM |

    I was vit D deficient at a level 12. I was told to take over the counter D3 1,000 a day for 5 mths, retest. It raised to only 23. I was told to take Vit D 3 at 2,000 a day for another 4 mths and the result was I went back down to 18. Finally took the presciption D2 at 50,000 a wk and I am mid normal. My 2 daughters were recently diagnosed with D deficiency as well. I walk a dog daily yet my 85 yr old mother who does not really see the sun and when does wears sunscreen takes no Vit D and is not deficient. Go figure.

    P.S. Yes Vit D did reduce hot flashes as well.

  • Sidney Lohr, Ph.D.

    12/16/2010 4:43:10 AM |

    In 1972, one year after starting my Medical Education {Psychology}, I attended the yearly "National Health Federation" {Monrovia, California} Convention. I was already prescribing High Doses of Vitamin D, and I attended a lecture by a  Physician who was already known as THE EXPERT in Vitamin D research!! To this day, I don't remember his Name. The Subject of this particular presentation,  was that Vitamin D2 was toxic to the Kidneys & caused Kidney Damage; Primarily Kidney Stones! His Research was solid and alarming! I bought the 90-minute Tape of his entire Presentation, but misplaced it approximately 5 years later. His presentation  was a Classic, and I'd pay $50.00 to $100.00 for a copy of the Tape today! If anyone has this tape, PLEASE contact me!!
    Meanwhile, NEVER take any amount of Vitamin D2. He proved that Vitamin D3 was safe, and that Vitamin D2 should never be ingested!

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